Ming Dynasty Geschichte
Die Ming-Dynastie herrschte von 13im Kaiserreich China, löste dabei die mongolische Herrschaft der Yuan-Dynastie in China ab und endete im Jahrhundert mit der Qing-Dynastie. Das Großsekretariat – Neige (auch: Da Xue Shi, chinesisch 內閣, Pinyin Nèigé, chinesisch 大學士, Pinyin dà xué shì, chinesisch 內閣大學士 / 殿阁大学士, Pinyin. Die Dynastie von 13war die lezte Zeit von den Han-Chinesen beherrscht. Welche Kaise in der Ming Dynastie gibt es? großes DANKE an Euch aussprechen! Danke für eure tolle Unterstützung und Danke, dass ihr ein Teil dieser Aktion wart! Eure Ming Dynastie. ×. Loading. Lassen Sie sich von uns in die kulinarische Welt der Ferne Ostasiens entführen in unserem chinesischen Restaurants in Berlin und Hamburg.
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However, by the end of the Ming the Dominicans had begun the Chinese Rites controversy in Rome that would eventually lead to a full ban of Christianity under the Qing dynasty.
During his mission, Ricci was also contacted in Beijing by one of the approximately 5, Kaifeng Jews and introduced them and their long history in China to Europe.
During the Ming dynasty, the Neo-Confucian doctrines of the Song scholar Zhu Xi were embraced by the court and the Chinese literati at large, although the direct line of his school was destroyed by the Yongle Emperor 's extermination of the ten degrees of kinship of Fang Xiaoru in The Ming scholar most influential upon subsequent generations, however, was Wang Yangming — , whose teachings were attacked in his own time for their similarity to Chan Buddhism.
Other scholar-bureaucrats were wary of Wang's heterodoxy, the increasing number of his disciples while he was still in office, and his overall socially rebellious message.
To curb his influence, he was often sent out to deal with military affairs and rebellions far away from the capital. Yet his ideas penetrated mainstream Chinese thought and spurred new interest in Taoism and Buddhism.
The liberal views of Wang Yangming were opposed by the Censorate and by the Donglin Academy , re-established in These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics.
Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng — argued against Wang's idea of innate moral knowledge, stating that this was simply a legitimization for unscrupulous behavior such as greedy pursuits and personal gain.
These two strands of Confucian thought, hardened by Chinese scholars' notions of obligation towards their mentors, developed into pervasive factionalism among the ministers of state, who used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court.
Wang Gen was able to give philosophical lectures to many commoners from different regions because — following the trend already apparent in the Song dynasty — communities in Ming society were becoming less isolated as the distance between market towns was shrinking.
Schools, descent groups, religious associations, and other local voluntary organizations were increasing in number and allowing more contact between educated men and local villagers.
A variety of occupations could be chosen or inherited from a father's line of work. This would include — but was not limited to — coffin makers, ironworkers and blacksmiths, tailors, cooks and noodle-makers, retail merchants, tavern, teahouse, or winehouse managers, shoemakers, seal cutters, pawnshop owners, brothel heads, and merchant bankers engaging in a proto-banking system involving notes of exchange.
A small township also provided a place for simple schooling, news and gossip, matchmaking, religious festivals, traveling theater groups, tax collection, and bases of famine relief distribution.
Farming villagers in the north spent their days harvesting crops like wheat and millet, while farmers south of the Huai River engaged in intensive rice cultivation and had lakes and ponds where ducks and fish could be raised.
The cultivation of mulberry trees for silkworms and tea bushes could be found mostly south of the Yangzi River ; even further south sugarcane and citrus were grown as basic crops.
Besides cutting down trees to sell wood, the poor also made a living by turning wood into charcoal, and by burning oyster shells to make lime and fired pots, and weaving mats and baskets.
Although the south had the characteristic of the wealthy landlord and tenant farmers, there were on average many more owner-cultivators north of the Huai River due to harsher climate, living not far above subsistence level.
Early Ming dynasty saw the strictest sumptuary laws in Chinese history. It was illegal for commoners to wear fine silk or dress in bright red, dark green or yellow colors; nor could they wear boots or guan hats.
Women could not use ornaments made from gold, jade, pearl or emerald. Merchants and their families were further banned from using silk.
However, these laws were no longer enforced from the middle Ming period onwards. Compared to the flourishing of science and technology in the Song dynasty , the Ming dynasty perhaps saw fewer advancements in science and technology compared to the pace of discovery in the Western world.
In fact, key advances in Chinese science in the late Ming were spurred by contact with Europe. When the Ming founder Hongwu came upon the mechanical devices housed in the Yuan dynasty's palace at Khanbaliq — such as fountains with balls dancing on their jets, self-operating tiger automata , dragon-headed devices that spouted mists of perfume, and mechanical clocks in the tradition of Yi Xing — and Su Song — — he associated all of them with the decadence of Mongol rule and had them destroyed.
The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology. In , Abraham Ortelius — featured in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages , just like Chinese ships.
This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation,  nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers,    the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom ,  metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching ,  manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions — illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize  — and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel.
Focusing on agriculture in his Nongzheng Quanshu , the agronomist Xu Guangqi — took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry.
There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms.
This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs ,  land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses,  naval mines,  fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control,  multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile shaped like a dragon's head ,  and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels.
Li Shizhen — — one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history — belonged to the late Ming period. His Bencao Gangmu is a medical text with 1, entries, each entry with its own name called a gang.
The mu in the title refers to the synonyms of each name. Throughout the Ming dynasty, around fifty texts were published on the treatment of smallpox.
Sinologist historians debate the population figures for each era in the Ming dynasty. The historian Timothy Brook notes that the Ming government census figures are dubious since fiscal obligations prompted many families to underreport the number of people in their households and many county officials to underreport the number of households in their jurisdiction.
The practice is well documented in China, going back over two thousand years, and it was described as "rampant" and "practiced by almost every family" by contemporary authors.
The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60,, people in Historians are now turning to local gazetteers of Ming China for clues that would show consistent growth in population.
Even with the Jiajing reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population.
Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Ming Dynasty. For other uses, see Ming disambiguation and Ming Dynasty disambiguation. Not to be confused with Mingus Dynasty. Former empire in Eastern Asia, — Ming China in during the reign of the Yongle Emperor.
Remnants of the Ming imperial family ruled southern China until as the Southern Ming. The Ming loyalist state Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan lasted until , but it was not ruled by the Zhu clan and thus usually not considered part of the Southern Ming.
Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.
Main article: History of the Ming dynasty. See also: Timeline of the Ming dynasty. Main article: Ming conquest of Yunnan.
Main article: Manchuria under Ming rule. Main article: Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty. Main article: Yongle Emperor. Main article: Fall of the Ming dynasty.
Further information: Europeans in Medieval China. Main article: Qing conquest of the Ming. See also: List of emperors of the Ming dynasty.
Further information: History of science and technology in China , List of Chinese inventions , and List of Chinese discoveries. Journal of World-Systems Research.
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University of Chicago Press. Inoculation had been a popular folk practice The Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 August Chinese views of childhood.
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Ming Dynasty - NavigationsmenüAnders als bei den Staatsbeamten gab es bei Eunuchen keine geregelte Karriereleiter mit Prüfungen, sondern sie waren völlig abhängig von den persönlichen Launen des Kaisers und wurden von diesem als ein Werkzeug des Absolutismus gegen die geregelten Staatsbeamten ausgespielt. Der Nutzung von im Rahmen der Impressumspflicht veröffentlichten Kontaktdaten zur Übersendung von nicht ausdrücklich angeforderter Werbung und Informationsmaterialien wird hiermit widersprochen. Sie versuchten Zugang zu den Chinesen über die westliche, fortgeschrittene Wissenschaft und Kultur zu bekommen. Wir weisen darauf hin, dass die Datenübertragung im Internet z. Aber der Bruder von dem Kaiser wurde zum neuen Kaiser. Die offizielle Sanktionierung des Handels war nur an drei Häfen erlaubt. Sie hatten wohl auch Afrika erreicht. Erschwerend für den Ming Dynasty Fortschritt war die traditionelle Verachtung der Konfuzianer gegenüber dem Handel und den Händlern, die in der Ming-Zeit einen Höhepunkt erreichte. Alle innerhalb des Internetangebotes genannten und ggf. Allerdings erfolgte unter den Ming eine geistige Wendung nach Mortal Kombat 3 Game Online. Namen, E-Mail-Adressen o. Sie hatten wohl auch Afrika erreicht. Hongwus Vorstellungen prägten den Staatsaufbau. Aber im Jahr überzeugten die Portugiesen die Gerichte der Ming, einer Vereinbarung zuzustimmen, die Macau als einen legalen Handelshafen für die Portugiesen erlaubte. Das Grundproblem dabei war, dass das Soldatentum eine Arbeitsvermittlung darstellte, für die man mit der Geburt vorgesehen war, ohne dass Liebe zum Beruf, zum Land oder zur Dynastie damit Mrs Greenbird waren. An ihrer Spitze war Matteo Riccider versuchte die buddhistische und daoistische Lehre mit dem Christentum in Einklang zu bringen. Alle Restaurants in Luxemburg ansehen.
There was a sizable market for fiction, especially for stories written in colloquial language. Writer Feng Menglong had a popular series of humorous short stories that featured palace figures and ghosts and sold well among merchants and educated women.
Play scripts sold very well also. One well-regarded playwright was Tang Xianzu, who specialized in social satire and romance.
It was during the Ming Dynasty that full-length novels began to grow in popularity. Many were adaptations of ancient story cycles that had been part of oral traditions for centuries.
Book illustration also thrived during this period, with printing methods allowing for artists to carve their illustrations on wood blocks for easily reproducible images.
Using illustrations was a way that one publisher would make their books distinct from others, since there was an overlap of written content from publisher to publisher.
Ming rule was partly undone by enormous fiscal problems that resulted in a calamitous collapse. Several factors contributed to the financial trouble.
An agricultural disaster, the result of the lowest temperatures of the Little Ice Age , also helped deplete funds. A drop in average temperatures resulted in earlier freezes, shortened growing seasons and produced pitiful harvests.
These circumstances lead to famine, which forced starving soldiers to desert their posts and form marauding gangs ravaging the countrysides.
By , the gangs were moving east, and the Imperial military proved incapable of stopping them. Soon after, the country was further decimated by flooding, locusts, drought and disease.
Rebellion and riots became commonplace. In , a group of rebels destroyed the dikes of the Yellow River and unleashed flooding that killed hundreds of thousands of people.
As the social order broke down and smallpox spread, two competing rebel leaders, Li Zicheng and Zhang, took control of separate parts of the country and both declared new dynasties.
Later that year, the semi-nomadic Manchu people prevailed over the chaos and became the ruling Qing Dynasty. The Troubled Empire.
Timothy Brook. Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Patricia Buckley Ebrey. The Dynasties of China.
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Sixteen emperors ruled over the whole of China spanning years. A series of claimants to the Ming throne continued to claim the throne of what was known as the Southern Ming until the last was executed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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