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Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5. The most acute problems are on Europe's periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina .
However, by , commentators   noted signs of stabilisation in the Latvian economy. The strengthening regional economy is supporting Latvian production and exports, while the sharp swing in the current account balance suggests that the country's 'internal devaluation' is working.
The IMF concluded the First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia in July announcing that Latvia's economy has been recovering strongly since , following the deep downturn in — Real GDP growth of 5.
The growth momentum has continued into and despite deteriorating external conditions, and the economy is expected to expand by 4. The unemployment rate has receded from its peak of more than 20 percent in to around 9.
Most transit traffic uses these and half the cargo is crude oil and oil products. Apart from road and railway connections, Ventspils is also linked to oil extraction fields and transportation routes of Russian Federation via system of two pipelines from Polotsk , Belarus.
Riga International Airport is the busiest airport in the Baltic states with 7. It has direct flight to over 80 destinations in 30 countries.
Latvia's railway network is currently incompatible with European standard gauge lines. In there were a total of , licensed vehicles in Latvia.
In the recent years a couple of dozen of wind farms as well as biogas or biomass power stations of different scale have been built in Latvia. The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1.
Every year more boys are born. Until the age of 39, there are more male than female. From the age of 40 — more female.
And from 70 females are 2,3 times more than males. Latvia's population has been multiethnic for centuries, though the demographics shifted dramatically in the 20th century due to the World Wars, the emigration and removal of Baltic Germans , the Holocaust , and occupation by the Soviet Union.
According to the Russian Empire Census of , Latvians formed As of March , Latvians form about There were , "non-citizens" living in Latvia or In some cities, e.
Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia — Riga.
The sole official language of Latvia is Latvian , which belongs to the Baltic language sub-group of the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
English is also widely accepted in Latvia in business and tourism. On 18 February , Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language.
Beginning in , instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools ,   except for subjects related to culture and history of the Russian minority, such as Russian language and literature classes.
Since then, Lutheranism has declined to a slightly greater extent than Roman Catholicism in all three Baltic states. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated , members in , was affected most adversely.
An internal document of 18 March , near the end of communist rule, spoke of an active membership that had shrunk to only 25, in Latvia, but the faith has since experienced a revival.
In , there were religious Jews , Muslims and Hindus. Most of the Hindus are local converts from the work of the Hare Krishna movement ; some are foreign workers from India.
The University of Latvia and Riga Technical University are two major universities in the country, both established on the basis of [ clarification needed ] Riga Polytechnical Institute and located in Riga.
Both nowadays cover a variety of different fields. The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of education.
Latvia closed schools between and , which is a Latvian policy in science and technology has set out the long-term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy.
Latvia plans to base the development of its scientific potential on existing scientific traditions, particularly in organic chemistry, medical chemistry, genetic engineering, physics, materials science and information technologies.
The Latvian healthcare system is a universal programme , largely funded through government taxation. Traditional Latvian folklore , especially the dance of the folk songs , dates back well over a thousand years.
More than 1. Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans , many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture , formed the upper class.
It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the United States, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century.
However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. John the Baptist. In the 19th century, Latvian nationalist movements emerged.
They promoted Latvian culture and encouraged Latvians to take part in cultural activities. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century is often regarded by Latvians as a classical era of Latvian culture.
Posters show the influence of other European cultures, for example, works of artists such as the Baltic-German artist Bernhard Borchert and the French Raoul Dufy.
It has been held since , normally every five years. Approximately 30, performers altogether participate in the event. After incorporation into the Soviet Union , Latvian artists and writers were forced to follow the socialist realism style of art.
During the Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the most popular being songs from the s.
At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity.
This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry. Since independence, theatre, scenography , choir music, and classical music have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture.
During July , Riga hosted the 8th World Choir Games as it played host to over 27, choristers representing over choirs and over 70 countries.
The festival is the biggest of its kind in the world and is held every two years in a different host city. Starting in Latvia hosts the inaugural Riga Jurmala Music Festival , a new festival in which world-famous orchestras and conductors perform across four weekends during the summer.
Latvian cuisine typically consists of agricultural products, with meat featuring in most main meal dishes. Fish is commonly consumed due to Latvia's location on the Baltic Sea.
Latvian cuisine has been influenced by the neighbouring countries. Common ingredients in Latvian recipes are found locally, such as potatoes, wheat, barley, cabbage, onions, eggs, and pork.
Latvian food is generally quite fatty, and uses few spices. Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. Ice hockey is usually considered the most popular sport in Latvia.
The national tournament is the Latvian Hockey Higher League , held since The second most popular sport is basketball.
Latvia has a long basketball tradition, as the Latvian national basketball team won the first ever EuroBasket in and silver medals in , after losing the final to Lithuania by one point.
Other popular sports include football , floorball , tennis, volleyball, cycling, bobsleigh and skeleton. Latvia has participated successfully in both Winter and Summer Olympics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Latvian student corporation, see Lettonia corporation. Country on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
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Main article: Geography of Latvia. Humid continental climate warm summer subtype. Oceanic climate. Main article: Administrative divisions of Latvia.
Main article: Foreign relations of Latvia. Main article: Human rights in Latvia. Main article: Military of Latvia. Main article: Economy of Latvia.
Main article: — Latvian financial crisis. Main article: Transport in Latvia. Main article: Demographics of Latvia. Residents of Latvia by ethnicity  Latvians.
Further information: Language policy in Latvia. Main article: Religion in Latvia. Religion in Latvia  Lutheranism.
Main article: Education in Latvia. See also: List of universities in Latvia. Main article: Health in Latvia. Main article: Culture of Latvia.
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